**Photovoltaic (PV) - Electrical Calculations**
Photovoltaic (PV) cells (sometimes called solar cells) convert solar energy into electrical energy. Every year more and more PV systems are installed...

**Our internet address and Vanity URLs**
Visitors who like to type web address rather then click menus may be interested in how our URL structure works.

**ANSI (IEEE) Protective Device Numbering**
The widely used United Sates standard ANSI/IEEE C37.2 'Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers, Acronyms, and Contact Designations' deals with...

**Fault Calculation - Per Unit System**
Per unit fault calculations is a method whereby system impedances and quantities are normalised across different voltage levels to a common base. By removing...

**8 Steps to Low Voltage Power Cable Selection and Sizing**
A recurring theme on our forums is cable sizing. Now many installations are unique and require special consideration. However, a lot of the time things...

**Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit**
Induction motors are frequently used in both industrial and domestic applications. Within the induction motor, an electrical current in the rotor is induced...

**Always Use PPE**
A lot of our members work in countries where PPE (personal protective equipment) is regulated or they work for companies/organizations which take employee...

**Control Theory**
Control theory looks at how systems work and are controlled from a mathematical view. This note gives a brief introduction to some of the concepts – more...

**Cable Sizing Software**
When sizing cables nearly, everyone uses some form of software. This ranges from homespun spreadsheets to complex network analyses software. Each has its...

**Fault Calculations - Introduction**
Fault calculations are one of the most common types of calculation carried out during the design and analysis of electrical systems. These calculations...