Lightning Protection and Earth Electrode Resistance
Most installations involve some form of lightning protection system which is connected to an earth electrode. The function of the earth electrode is to...
Low Voltage Circuit Breakers
Circuit breakers are switching devices whose primary function is to isolate parts of an electrical distribution system in the even of abnormal conditions...
Questions - Reputation and Privilege
Our question and answer system while letting you do exactly what it says, is much more. It is a dynamic user driven system, where our users not only ask...
Load Flow Study – how they work
A load flow study is the analysis of an electrical network carried out by an electrical engineer. The purpose is to understand how power flows around...
Photovoltaic (PV) Panel - Performance Modelling
In an earlier note on the site [Photovoltaic (PV) - Electrical Calculations], the theory of solar (PV) cell calculations was introduced. In particular...
Fault Calculations - Introduction
Fault calculations are one of the most common types of calculation carried out during the design and analysis of electrical systems. These calculations...
Periodic Electrical Installation Inspection – How Often?
How often installations are inspected is up to the owner of the installation, provided such durations do not exceed any regulatory maximums in force. ...
Switchboard - Forms of Internal Separation
IEC 61439 'Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies', specifies standard arrangements of switchboard (call forms of internal separation). The...
Understanding Motor Duty Rating
One of the comments on my Motor Starting Series was asking for something on duty cycles. Here it is.
As a purchaser of a motor, you have responsibility...
Maxwell's Equations - Introduction
Maxwell's Equations are a set of fundamental relationships, which govern how electric and magnetic fields interact. The equations explain how these fields...