Cables for MV Power Distribution - Earthed versus Unearthed Systems
Power cables can basically be classified into earthed and unearthed cables, where earthed and unearthed refer to the application for which the cable is...
Hazardous Areas – IEC and NEC/CEC Comparison
Depending where in the world you work, you are likely following one of two standards
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
National...
Low Voltage Fault Tables
The following tables provide quick order of magnitude fault levels for a a range of typical low voltage situations.
Power Factor
Power factor is the ratio between the real power (P in kW) and apparent power (S in kVA) drawn by an electrical load. The reactive power (Q in kVAr)...
Fault Calculations - Typical Equipment Parameters
A frequent problem in fault calculations is the obtaining of equipment parameters. While it is always preferable to use the actual parameters of the equipment...
Write your best report
Years ago I was told that you should always try to write the best report you can. Many years later I still think on this as one of the better pieces of...
Voltage Drop in Installations - Concepts
Problems on achieving maximum voltage drop within an installation come up often. Depending where you live, local regulations will have different limits...
Photovoltaic (PV) Panel - Performance Modelling
In an earlier note on the site [Photovoltaic (PV) - Electrical Calculations], the theory of solar (PV) cell calculations was introduced. In particular...
Post Authorship
In 2011, with the introduction of it’s Panda search ranking algorithms, Google introduced tools for determining the original author of posts. The intention...
Lighting - Lamps
Lamps are the essential part of any luminaire. These are the light generating components. Since the advent of electrical lighting in the middle of the...