Understanding Motor Duty Rating 

By on

One of the comments on my Motor Starting Series was asking for something on duty cycles.  Here it is. 

As a purchaser of a motor, you have responsibility to let the manufacturer know the anticipated duty of the motor.  To assist in the communication of this information, the standard IEC 60034-1 (Rotating electrical machines) defines several duty characteristics, denoted S1 to S10:

S1  Continuous duty The motor operates at a continuous load for sufficient time to enable machine to reach thermal equilibrium. 
S2 Short Time duty Operation at a load for a time not sufficient to reach thermal equilibrium, followed by enough time for the motor to cool down.
S3  Intermittent periodic duty
Series of identical duty cycles each a constant load for a period, followed by a rest period. Thermal equilibrium is not reached during the cycle.
S4 Intermittent periodic duty with starting Similar to S3, but there is a significant starting time within the periodic operation.
S5 Intermittent periodic duty with electric braking Sequence of identical duty cycles - starting, operation, braking and rest.  Again thermal equilibrium is not reached.
S6 Continuous operation periodic duty Identical duty cycles with a period at load followed by a period at no load.  Difference between S1 is that the motor runs at no-load, without actual stopping.
S7 Continuous operation periodic duty with electric braking As per S6, but with a significant starting and electric breaking periods.  Again motor operates at no-load for  period instead of stopped. 
S8 Continuous operation periodic duty with related load/speed changes Series of identical repeating duty cycles, where within each cycle the motor operates at several different load levels and speed. There is not stopped time and thermal equilibrium is not reached.
S9 Duty with non-periodic load and speed variations     Load and speed vary periodically within the permissible operating range. Frequent overloading may occur.
S10 Duty with discrete constant loads and speeds Duty with discrete number of load/speed combinations, with these maintained long enough to reach thermal equilibrium.
     

 

Thermal Equilibrium is the state reached when the temperature rise of the machine does not vary by more than 2K per hour.   If you don't specify the duty cycle, the manufacturer will likely assume S1. Click on the image to see a larger version, illustrating the duty cycles.

If anyone has anything to add, please do so below. 



Steven McFadyen's avatar Steven McFadyen

Steven has over twenty five years experience working on some of the largest construction projects. He has a deep technical understanding of electrical engineering and is keen to share this knowledge. About the author

myElectrical Engineering

comments powered by Disqus

  1. sabari nath's avatar sabari nath says:
    5/24/2013 7:51 AM

    Can you help me understand the relation between Motor duty cyce and Starts per hour?


Comments are closed for this post:
  • have a question or need help, please use our Questions Section
  • spotted an error or have additional info that you think should be in this post, feel free to Contact Us



Lightning Risk Assessment (IEC 62305)

IEC 62305 'Protection against lightning' requires a risk assessment be carried out to determine the characteristics of any lightning protection system...

IEC 60287 Current Capacity of Cables - An Introduction

IEC 60287 "Calculation of the continuous current rating of cables (100% load factor)" is the International Standard which defines the procedures and equations...

8 Steps to Low Voltage Power Cable Selection and Sizing

A recurring theme on our forums is cable sizing. Now many installations are unique and require special consideration. However, a lot of the time things...

Introduction to Lighting

When looking at the design of a lighting scheme it is useful to have an understanding on the nature of light itself and some of the basic theory associated...

Load Flow Study – how they work

A load flow study is the analysis of an electrical network carried out by an electrical engineer. The purpose is to understand how power flows around...

Generation of a Sine Wave

A fundamental concept behind the operation of alternating current systems is that voltage and current waveforms will be sinusoidal – a Sine Wave. This...

Electromechanical Relays

Electromechanical relays have been the traditional backbone of electrical protection systems.  While over recent years these have been replaced by microprocessor...

How to Write an Electrical Note

Electrical notes are a collaborative collection of electrical engineering information and educational material. Any registered user can add content. ...

Skin Tapping Input

Tapping your forearm or hand with a finger could soon be the way you interact with gadgets. A new technology created by Microsoft and Carnegie Mellon ...

Frame Leakage Protection

While not as popular as it once was, frame leakage protection does still have some use in some circumstances.  In essence frame leakage is an earth fault...

Have some knowledge to share

If you have some expert knowledge or experience, why not consider sharing this with our community.  

By writing an electrical note, you will be educating our users and at the same time promoting your expertise within the engineering community.

To get started and understand our policy, you can read our How to Write an Electrical Note