Fault Calculations - Typical Equipment Parameters 

By on

A frequent problem in fault calculations is the obtaining of equipment parameters. While it is always preferable to use the actual parameters of the equipment, sometimes these are not available. In this instance it is necessary to resort to the use of typical parameters.

This note is intended to become a collection of typical parameters. If there is something missing or needs adding, please leave a comment in the discussion.

HV Network Impedance

Impedance of HV network referred to LV side of transformer

Psc Uo (V) Ra (mΩ) Xa (mΩ)
250 MVA 420 0.106 0.71
500 MVA 420 0.053 0.353

Low Voltage Power Transformers

Transformer Short Circuit Impedance

Typical values short circuit impedance, USC for different kVA ratings (HV winding < 20 kV)

  Type of Transformer
transformer rating oil-immersed cast-resin
50 to 630 4% 6%
800 to 2500 6% 6%

Transformer Impedance (400 V)

Resistance, reactance and impedance for typical transformers (HV winding <20 kV)

transformer rated power (kVA) 50 100 160 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500
oil-immersed Usc % 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6
  Rtr 95.3 37.9 16.2 9.2 6.9 5.1 3.9 2.9 2.9 2.3 1.8 1.4 1.1 0.9
  Xtr 104.1 59.5 41.0 26.7 21.3 16.9 13.6 10.8 12.9 10.3 8.3 6.5 5.2 4.1
  Ztr 141.1 70.5 44.1 28.2 22.4 17.7 14.1 11.2 13.2 10.6 8.5 6.6 5.3 4.2
cast-resin Usc % 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
  Rtr   33.5 18.6 10.7 8.2 6.1 4.6 3.5 2.6 1.9 1.5 1.1 0.8 0.6
  Xtr   100.4 63.5 41.0 32.6 25.8 20.7 16.4 13.0 10.4 8.3 6.5 5.2 4.2
  Ztr   105.8 66.2 42.4 33.6 26.5 21.2 16.8 13.3 10.6 8.4 6.6 5.3 4.2

 

Synchronous Machines

Performance Under Fault Conditions

Sub-transient emf:  myElectrical Equation

Transient emf:  myElectrical Equation 

Synchronous emf:  myElectrical Equation
Fault current: myElectrical Equation

Typical Machine Reactances

Typical Machine Reactances (& Time Constants

  Cylindrical Rotor
Turbine Generators

Salient Pole Generators
  Salient Pole
Synchronous
Condensers

Conventional
Direct
Cooled

4 Pole

Multi-Pole
Synchronous
Direct axis Xd pu 1.6-2.0 0.8-1.0 2.0-2.3 2.1-2.4 1.3-2.1 1.3-1.5
Quadrature axis Xq pu 1.0-1.25 0.5-0.65 1.95-2.1 1.95-2.25 0.6-1.2 0.8-1.0
Transient
Reactance  Xd' pu 0.3-0.5 0.2-0.35 0.18-0.25 0.27-0.30 0.15-0.35 0.4-0.5
Short circuit τd' s 1.5-2.5 1.0-2.0 0.75-1.0 0.75-1.0 0.8-1.2 0.8-1.2
Open circuit τdo' s 5-10 3-7 4-8 6-9.5 4-8 3-7
Sub-transient
Direct axis Xd'' pu 0.2-0.4 0.12-0.25 0.11-0.13 0.19-0.23 0.1-0.25 0.2-0.35
Quadrature axis Xq'' pu 0.25-0.6 0.15-0.45 0.11-0.13 0.19-0.23 0.14-0.35 0.2-0.35
Short circuit - direct axis τd' s 0.04-0.09 0.05-0.10 0.015-0.025 0.02-0.03 0.02-0.04 0.02-0.07
Open circuit - direct axis τd'' s 0.07-0.11 0.08-0.25 0.015-0.025 0.02-0.03 0.04-0.07 0.02-0.07
Short circuit - quadrature axis τq'' s 0.04-0.6 0.05-0.6 0.015-0.025 0.02-0.03 0.10-0.15 0.02-0.07
Open circuit - quadrature axis τq0'' s 0.1-1.2 0.2-0.9 0.015-0.025 0.02-0.03 0.3-0.7 0.1-0.2
Other Reactances
Negative sequence X-ve pu 0.25-0.5 0.14-0.35 0.11-0.13 0.19-0.23 0.12-0.3 0.2-0.35
Zero sequence  Xo pu 0.12-0.16 0.06-0.10 0.05-0.075 0.11-0.16 0.03-0.10 0.1-0.2

Cables

myElectrical Equation
myElectrical Equation

where:

d = distance between centre
r = geometric mean radius
a = cross sectional area (mm)

TypicalEquipmentCables



Steven McFadyen's avatar Steven McFadyen

Steven has over twenty five years experience working on some of the largest construction projects. He has a deep technical understanding of electrical engineering and is keen to share this knowledge. About the author

myElectrical Engineering

comments powered by Disqus



Material Properties

Everything physical in electrical engineering from insulations to conductors revolves around materials. Here we are listing common materials along with...

Variable Frequency Drive

Variable frequency drives are widely used to control the speed of ac motors.  This note looks at the mechanisms which enable drive units to control the...

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is the study of coordinating electromagnetic fields give off equipment, with the withstand (compatibility) of other...

Write your best report

Years ago I was told that you should always try to write the best report you can.  Many years later I still think on this as one of the better pieces of...

3 Phase Loads

Three phase systems are derived from three separate windings, either connected in delta or star (wye). Each winding can be treated separately, leading...

Motor Starting - Introduction

Motor starting and its associated problems are well-known to many people who have worked on large industrial processes. However, these things are, of course...

Low Voltage Circuit Breakers

Circuit breakers are switching devices whose primary function is to isolate parts of an electrical distribution system in the even of abnormal conditions...

Paternoster Lifts

These lifts were first built in 1884 by J. E. Hall and called a paternoster ("Our Father", the first two words of the Lord's Prayer in Latin) due to its...

Robots - Interesting Videos

The robot folding towels post below was interesting enough at the time to post a link.  Recently I’ve come across a couple of other interesting videos...

Useful Motor Technical Information

Sometimes it’s useful to be able to quickly lookup a piece of technical information.  This note is a collection of information related to motors, and in...

Have some knowledge to share

If you have some expert knowledge or experience, why not consider sharing this with our community.  

By writing an electrical note, you will be educating our users and at the same time promoting your expertise within the engineering community.

To get started and understand our policy, you can read our How to Write an Electrical Note