Fault Calculations - Typical Equipment Parameters 

By on

A frequent problem in fault calculations is the obtaining of equipment parameters. While it is always preferable to use the actual parameters of the equipment, sometimes these are not available. In this instance it is necessary to resort to the use of typical parameters.

This note is intended to become a collection of typical parameters. If there is something missing or needs adding, please leave a comment in the discussion.

HV Network Impedance

Impedance of HV network referred to LV side of transformer

Psc Uo (V) Ra (mΩ) Xa (mΩ)
250 MVA 420 0.106 0.71
500 MVA 420 0.053 0.353

Low Voltage Power Transformers

Transformer Short Circuit Impedance

Typical values short circuit impedance, USC for different kVA ratings (HV winding < 20 kV)

  Type of Transformer
transformer rating oil-immersed cast-resin
50 to 630 4% 6%
800 to 2500 6% 6%

Transformer Impedance (400 V)

Resistance, reactance and impedance for typical transformers (HV winding <20 kV)

transformer rated power (kVA) 50 100 160 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500
oil-immersed Usc % 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6
  Rtr 95.3 37.9 16.2 9.2 6.9 5.1 3.9 2.9 2.9 2.3 1.8 1.4 1.1 0.9
  Xtr 104.1 59.5 41.0 26.7 21.3 16.9 13.6 10.8 12.9 10.3 8.3 6.5 5.2 4.1
  Ztr 141.1 70.5 44.1 28.2 22.4 17.7 14.1 11.2 13.2 10.6 8.5 6.6 5.3 4.2
cast-resin Usc % 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
  Rtr   33.5 18.6 10.7 8.2 6.1 4.6 3.5 2.6 1.9 1.5 1.1 0.8 0.6
  Xtr   100.4 63.5 41.0 32.6 25.8 20.7 16.4 13.0 10.4 8.3 6.5 5.2 4.2
  Ztr   105.8 66.2 42.4 33.6 26.5 21.2 16.8 13.3 10.6 8.4 6.6 5.3 4.2

 

Synchronous Machines

Performance Under Fault Conditions

Sub-transient emf:  myElectrical Equation

Transient emf:  myElectrical Equation 

Synchronous emf:  myElectrical Equation
Fault current: myElectrical Equation

Typical Machine Reactances

Typical Machine Reactances (& Time Constants

  Cylindrical Rotor
Turbine Generators

Salient Pole Generators
  Salient Pole
Synchronous
Condensers

Conventional
Direct
Cooled

4 Pole

Multi-Pole
Synchronous
Direct axis Xd pu 1.6-2.0 0.8-1.0 2.0-2.3 2.1-2.4 1.3-2.1 1.3-1.5
Quadrature axis Xq pu 1.0-1.25 0.5-0.65 1.95-2.1 1.95-2.25 0.6-1.2 0.8-1.0
Transient
Reactance  Xd' pu 0.3-0.5 0.2-0.35 0.18-0.25 0.27-0.30 0.15-0.35 0.4-0.5
Short circuit τd' s 1.5-2.5 1.0-2.0 0.75-1.0 0.75-1.0 0.8-1.2 0.8-1.2
Open circuit τdo' s 5-10 3-7 4-8 6-9.5 4-8 3-7
Sub-transient
Direct axis Xd'' pu 0.2-0.4 0.12-0.25 0.11-0.13 0.19-0.23 0.1-0.25 0.2-0.35
Quadrature axis Xq'' pu 0.25-0.6 0.15-0.45 0.11-0.13 0.19-0.23 0.14-0.35 0.2-0.35
Short circuit - direct axis τd' s 0.04-0.09 0.05-0.10 0.015-0.025 0.02-0.03 0.02-0.04 0.02-0.07
Open circuit - direct axis τd'' s 0.07-0.11 0.08-0.25 0.015-0.025 0.02-0.03 0.04-0.07 0.02-0.07
Short circuit - quadrature axis τq'' s 0.04-0.6 0.05-0.6 0.015-0.025 0.02-0.03 0.10-0.15 0.02-0.07
Open circuit - quadrature axis τq0'' s 0.1-1.2 0.2-0.9 0.015-0.025 0.02-0.03 0.3-0.7 0.1-0.2
Other Reactances
Negative sequence X-ve pu 0.25-0.5 0.14-0.35 0.11-0.13 0.19-0.23 0.12-0.3 0.2-0.35
Zero sequence  Xo pu 0.12-0.16 0.06-0.10 0.05-0.075 0.11-0.16 0.03-0.10 0.1-0.2

Cables

myElectrical Equation
myElectrical Equation

where:

d = distance between centre
r = geometric mean radius
a = cross sectional area (mm)

TypicalEquipmentCables



Steven McFadyen's avatar Steven McFadyen

Steven has over twenty five years experience working on some of the largest construction projects. He has a deep technical understanding of electrical engineering and is keen to share this knowledge. About the author

myElectrical Engineering

comments powered by Disqus



Skin Tapping Input

Tapping your forearm or hand with a finger could soon be the way you interact with gadgets. A new technology created by Microsoft and Carnegie Mellon ...

UPS - Uninterruptible Power Supply

A UPS is an uninterruptible power supply.  It is a device which maintains a continuous supply of electrical power, even in the event of failure of the...

Motor Starting - Introduction

Motor starting and its associated problems are well-known to many people who have worked on large industrial processes. However, these things are, of course...

Lead us, Warleader

Delum, who had watched all in silence, his face empty of expression, now spoke in turn. ' "Lead us, Warleader, into glory."' Reading is something I do...

Understanding electric motor insulation & temperature

Anyone specifying or using electric motors should have a basic understanding how the insulation is related to temperature. Three classes of insulation...

Welcome back Bottle

‘Kept looking at a card, y’see? Kept looking at it. Welcome back Bottle. Gods below welcome home. The Crippled God A Tale of the Malazan Book of the...

9 power supply issues solved by using a UPS

Installation of a UPS can help in reducing problems due to issues with the power supply.  A lot of people relate this to nine key issues.  Depending on...

Mobile Phones (Brick to Implant)

The mobile phone was born in 1973. They were the size of a brick and weighed a couple of kg, making them difficult to fit into your pocket. At a few thousand...

International System of Units (SI System)

The International System of Units (abbreviated SI) is the world's most widely used system of units.  The system consists of a set of units and prefixes...

Gas Insulated or Air Insulated Switchgear

Various arguments exist around SF6 Gas Insulated (GIS) and Air Insulated (AIS) medium voltage switchgear. Recently we had to change a GIS design to AI...

Have some knowledge to share

If you have some expert knowledge or experience, why not consider sharing this with our community.  

By writing an electrical note, you will be educating our users and at the same time promoting your expertise within the engineering community.

To get started and understand our policy, you can read our How to Write an Electrical Note