Fault Calculations - Typical Equipment Parameters 

By on

A frequent problem in fault calculations is the obtaining of equipment parameters. While it is always preferable to use the actual parameters of the equipment, sometimes these are not available. In this instance it is necessary to resort to the use of typical parameters.

This note is intended to become a collection of typical parameters. If there is something missing or needs adding, please leave a comment in the discussion.

HV Network Impedance

Impedance of HV network referred to LV side of transformer

Psc Uo (V) Ra (mΩ) Xa (mΩ)
250 MVA 420 0.106 0.71
500 MVA 420 0.053 0.353

Low Voltage Power Transformers

Transformer Short Circuit Impedance

Typical values short circuit impedance, USC for different kVA ratings (HV winding < 20 kV)

  Type of Transformer
transformer rating oil-immersed cast-resin
50 to 630 4% 6%
800 to 2500 6% 6%

Transformer Impedance (400 V)

Resistance, reactance and impedance for typical transformers (HV winding <20 kV)

transformer rated power (kVA) 50 100 160 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500
oil-immersed Usc % 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6
  Rtr 95.3 37.9 16.2 9.2 6.9 5.1 3.9 2.9 2.9 2.3 1.8 1.4 1.1 0.9
  Xtr 104.1 59.5 41.0 26.7 21.3 16.9 13.6 10.8 12.9 10.3 8.3 6.5 5.2 4.1
  Ztr 141.1 70.5 44.1 28.2 22.4 17.7 14.1 11.2 13.2 10.6 8.5 6.6 5.3 4.2
cast-resin Usc % 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
  Rtr   33.5 18.6 10.7 8.2 6.1 4.6 3.5 2.6 1.9 1.5 1.1 0.8 0.6
  Xtr   100.4 63.5 41.0 32.6 25.8 20.7 16.4 13.0 10.4 8.3 6.5 5.2 4.2
  Ztr   105.8 66.2 42.4 33.6 26.5 21.2 16.8 13.3 10.6 8.4 6.6 5.3 4.2

 

Synchronous Machines

Performance Under Fault Conditions

Sub-transient emf:  myElectrical Equation

Transient emf:  myElectrical Equation 

Synchronous emf:  myElectrical Equation
Fault current: myElectrical Equation

Typical Machine Reactances

Typical Machine Reactances (& Time Constants

  Cylindrical Rotor
Turbine Generators

Salient Pole Generators
  Salient Pole
Synchronous
Condensers

Conventional
Direct
Cooled

4 Pole

Multi-Pole
Synchronous
Direct axis Xd pu 1.6-2.0 0.8-1.0 2.0-2.3 2.1-2.4 1.3-2.1 1.3-1.5
Quadrature axis Xq pu 1.0-1.25 0.5-0.65 1.95-2.1 1.95-2.25 0.6-1.2 0.8-1.0
Transient
Reactance  Xd' pu 0.3-0.5 0.2-0.35 0.18-0.25 0.27-0.30 0.15-0.35 0.4-0.5
Short circuit τd' s 1.5-2.5 1.0-2.0 0.75-1.0 0.75-1.0 0.8-1.2 0.8-1.2
Open circuit τdo' s 5-10 3-7 4-8 6-9.5 4-8 3-7
Sub-transient
Direct axis Xd'' pu 0.2-0.4 0.12-0.25 0.11-0.13 0.19-0.23 0.1-0.25 0.2-0.35
Quadrature axis Xq'' pu 0.25-0.6 0.15-0.45 0.11-0.13 0.19-0.23 0.14-0.35 0.2-0.35
Short circuit - direct axis τd' s 0.04-0.09 0.05-0.10 0.015-0.025 0.02-0.03 0.02-0.04 0.02-0.07
Open circuit - direct axis τd'' s 0.07-0.11 0.08-0.25 0.015-0.025 0.02-0.03 0.04-0.07 0.02-0.07
Short circuit - quadrature axis τq'' s 0.04-0.6 0.05-0.6 0.015-0.025 0.02-0.03 0.10-0.15 0.02-0.07
Open circuit - quadrature axis τq0'' s 0.1-1.2 0.2-0.9 0.015-0.025 0.02-0.03 0.3-0.7 0.1-0.2
Other Reactances
Negative sequence X-ve pu 0.25-0.5 0.14-0.35 0.11-0.13 0.19-0.23 0.12-0.3 0.2-0.35
Zero sequence  Xo pu 0.12-0.16 0.06-0.10 0.05-0.075 0.11-0.16 0.03-0.10 0.1-0.2

Cables

myElectrical Equation
myElectrical Equation

where:

d = distance between centre
r = geometric mean radius
a = cross sectional area (mm)

TypicalEquipmentCables



Steven McFadyen's avatar Steven McFadyen

Steven has over twenty five years experience working on some of the largest construction projects. He has a deep technical understanding of electrical engineering and is keen to share this knowledge. About the author

myElectrical Engineering

comments powered by Disqus



Surface Treatment – Ladders, Trays and Baskets

Steel ladders, trays and baskets form the backbone of cable containment systems. Often these items need some form of surface treatment to prevent corrosion...

Windows Live Writer and myElectrical

When making adding a Note to our site we have a great online WYSIWYG editor and things are pretty simple.  However, if you prefer you can write, manage...

IEC Reference Designations

The IEC publishes a series of documents and rules governing the preparation of documents, drawings and the referencing of equipment.   Depending on country...

Cable Sizing Software

When sizing cables nearly, everyone uses some form of software. This ranges from homespun spreadsheets to complex network analyses software. Each has its...

How to Write an Electrical Note

Electrical notes are a collaborative collection of electrical engineering information and educational material. Any registered user can add content. ...

Tip – Latitude and Longitude on Large Scale Plans

If you are working on a large plan, get the real coordinates [latitude, longitude] for two or more points and add them to the drawing. That way you can...

EU Code of Conduct on Data Centres - Best Practices

The European Union is implementing a voluntary code of practice for participants with the aim of improving the overall efficiency of data centres. As part...

Cold Fusion (or not?)

Recently I have seen a few interesting articles on viable cold fusion; the combining of atoms at room like temperatures to create boundless energy. Now...

Smarter Electrical Distribution

The other day I came across an article in Technology Review on the development of a smart transformer. A professor at North Carolina State University is...

IEC 60287 Current Capacity of Cables - Rated Current

In the previous note we looked at the approach taken by the standard to the sizing of cables and illustrated this with an example.  We then looked at one...

Have some knowledge to share

If you have some expert knowledge or experience, why not consider sharing this with our community.  

By writing an electrical note, you will be educating our users and at the same time promoting your expertise within the engineering community.

To get started and understand our policy, you can read our How to Write an Electrical Note