DC Motor Operation 

By on

Coils of wire on the rotor carry a d.c. current which generates a magnetic field. A stator magnetic field is created using either permanent magnets or electrical field windings.

Any current-carrying conductor placed within an external magnetic field experiences a force. Torque is produced in the motor by this mechanism.

As a d.c current provides a constant magnetic field, this needs to change each half revolution and is called commutation. Commutation is typically accomplished by metal brushes against the contacts. Where a field winding is used to generate the stator magnetic field, different motor characteristics can be obtained depending on how this winding is connected.

Operation Principals 

DC Motor Operation PrincipalsFor the equivalent circuit the parameters are given by:

 

myElectrical EquationWhere:

myElectrical Equation       - lap winding

myElectrical Equation -       wave winding

given that

  • n = number of conductor
  • p = number of pole pairs
  • ω = motor speed, rad s-1
  • φ = flux per pole, Wb
  • T = torque Nm
and

myElectrical Equation

The power input to armature is given by:      myElectrical Equation

The armature power loss is given by:           myElectrical Equation

The output power is given by:                         myElectrical Equation

The torque is given by:                                     myElectrical Equation

Typically, IaRa is ±3% of Va and the power dissipated in field winding ±3.5% of the motor rating.

Field Windings

Permanent magnets or field windings of a dc motor provide the necessary magnetic fields for the motor to operate(often call excitation):

  • permanent magnets - provides a continuous and constant magnetic field by the use of permanently magnetized materials (typically on only the smallest motors)
  • separately excited - separate windings and power supply provide the magnetic field for the motor
  • shunt winding - this is connected in parallel with the motor armature to provide the excitation
  • series winding - this is connected in series with the motor armature to provide the excitation
  • compound winding - is a hybrid between shunt and series where to field windings are connected both in parallel and in series with the armature

Characteristics of DC Motors

 

Speed Control of DC Motors

Separately excited, shunt

  • Constant power drive - Ia,Va is held constant and If varied
  • Constant torque If is held constant and Ia, Va varied

DC Converter output Voltages

Semi converter,       myElectrical Equation         [DC converter equations do not look correct.  Please can someone check.]     

Full converter, myElectrical Equation - with infinite inductive filtering


Steven McFadyen's avatar Steven McFadyen

Steven has over twenty five years experience working on some of the largest construction projects. He has a deep technical understanding of electrical engineering and is keen to share this knowledge. About the author

myElectrical Engineering

comments powered by Disqus



E-Ink

Before the technical, some general information. E-ink display are found in a lot of e-readers, some mobile phones and similar devices and the intent is...

1,000 kV UHV First for China

At the beginning of the year China put the world's first 1,000 kV UHV transmission system into operation. Transmitting power at over a million volts is...

Introduction to Current Transformers

Current transformers (CTs) are used to convert high level currents to a smaller more reasonable level for use as inputs to protection relays and metering...

Alternating Current Circuits

Alternating current (a.c.) is the backbone of modern electrical power distribution. In this article I’ll be pulling some of the more important concepts...

Induction Motor Calculator

Just added a page to the tools, which will allow you to calculate the synchronous speed, slip and rated torque for an induction motor. Not a particularly...

Always Use PPE

A lot of our members work in countries where PPE (personal protective equipment) is regulated or they work for companies/organizations which take employee...

Power Transformers - An Introduction

One of the fundamental requirements of an alternating current distribution systems it to have the ability to change the magnitude of voltages.  It is more...

Low Voltage Circuit Breakers

Circuit breakers are switching devices whose primary function is to isolate parts of an electrical distribution system in the even of abnormal conditions...

Dielectric loss in cables

Dielectrics (insulating materials for example) when subjected to a varying electric field, will have some energy loss.   The varying electric field causes...

Back to Basics - Ohm’s Law

Electrical engineering has a multitude of laws and theorems. It is fair to say the Ohm's Law is one of the more widely known; it not the most known. Developed...

Have some knowledge to share

If you have some expert knowledge or experience, why not consider sharing this with our community.  

By writing an electrical note, you will be educating our users and at the same time promoting your expertise within the engineering community.

To get started and understand our policy, you can read our How to Write an Electrical Note