Restricted Earth Fault Protection

By Steven McFadyen on 3/25/2012 7:49 AM

The windings of many medium and small sized transformers are protected by restricted earth fault (REF) systems. The illustration shows the principal of REF protection. read more..


Cable Insulation Properties

By Steven McFadyen on 5/15/2012 1:13 AM

Cable insulation is used to provide electrical separation between conductors of  a cable.  During the historical development of cables, numerous types of insulation have been employed. ... read more..


Photovoltaic (PV) Panel - Performance Modelling

By Steven McFadyen on 1/7/2015 10:55 PM

In an earlier note on the site [Photovoltaic (PV) - Electrical Calculations], the theory of solar (PV) ... read more..


Three Phase Current - Simple Calculation

By Steven McFadyen on 3/1/2009 6:47 AM

The calculation of current in a three phase system has been brought up on our site feedback and is a discussion I seem to get involved in every now and again. While some colleagues prefer to remember... read more..


Load Flow Study – how they work

By Steven McFadyen on 12/8/2014 5:25 AM

A load flow study is the analysis of an electrical network carried out by an electrical engineer. The purpose is to understand how power flows around the electrical network. Carrying out a load flow s... read more..


Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Insulation

By Steven McFadyen on 7/5/2011 10:12 PM

While there are a vast array of cable insulation materials, these are often divided into two general types; Thermoplastic or Thermosetting. For example the current capacity determination of a cable in a... read more..


Arc Flash Calculations

By Steven McFadyen on 3/22/2012 2:14 AM

Working in the vicinity of electrical equipment poses an hazard. In addition to electric shock hazard, fault currents passing through air causes Arc Flash. To protect people a risk analysis on the ar... read more..


Motor Starting - Introduction

By Steven McFadyen on 8/10/2011 8:28 PM

Motor starting and its associated problems are well-known to many people who have worked on large industrial processes. However, these things are, of course, less familiar to others.  This post ... read more..


Tips for a better Low Voltage Protection Discrimination Study

By Steven McFadyen on 11/3/2014 6:48 AM

Carrying out a protection system discrimination study is critical to ensure the correct functioning of  the electrical system in the event of faults.  The IEC defines discrimination as:

... read more..


What is an Open Delta Transformer

By Steven McFadyen on 10/13/2014 6:54 AM

In three phase systems, the use of transformers with three windings (or legs) per side is common.  These three windings are often connected in delta or star, resulting in common transformer conf... read more..


Generator Sizing & Operation Limits

By Steven McFadyen on 11/1/2010 11:07 PM

When selecting a generator, there are inherent limits on the active and reactive power which can be delivered. Generators are normally sized for a certain kW at a power factor of 0.8. However, to unders... read more..


Star-Delta Motor Starting - Performance

By Steven McFadyen on 7/10/2014 10:51 AM

Many questions sent in to the site are in connection with motor starting and in particular star-delta.  For all but the simplest application, there is merit in performing a more detailed study.&... read more..


Pages: Prev1234567...16NextReturn Top


Latest Questions:

  1. UPS battery sizing
  2. VSD/ VFD/ softstarters current supply to motor
  3. On load RPM of DC series motor
  4. Motor Current Calculation
  5. Protection Settings Training Course
  6. Current Calculation
  7. Max ratings of breakers
  8. Fault Current

most popular notesMost Popular Notes:







newsletter logo

Our Newsletter

Receive updates on new posts by email
down arrow

Electric Power Distribution Engineering, Third Edition
Electric Power Distribution Engineering, ...
Turan Gonen
Hardcover - 1061 pages
$137.08
Solar Electricity Handbook - 2015 Edition: A simple, practical guide to solar energy - designing and installing solar PV systems.
Solar Electricity Handbook - 2015 Edition: ...
Michael Boxwell
Paperback - 204 pages
$16.36
Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems
Renewable and Efficient Electric Power ...
Gilbert M. Masters
Hardcover - 712 pages
$112.96
Electric Energy: An Introduction, Third Edition (Power Electronics and Applications Series)
Electric Energy: An Introduction, Third ...
Mohamed A. El-Sharkawi
Hardcover - 606 pages
$95.01
Large-Scale Solar Power System Design (GreenSource Books): An Engineering Guide for Grid-Connected Solar Power Generation (McGraw-Hill's Greensource)
Large-Scale Solar Power System Design ...
Peter Gevorkian
Hardcover - 704 pages
$98.82
Power System Relaying
Power System Relaying
Stanley H. Horowitz, ...
Hardcover - 398 pages
$122.01
Energy Systems Engineering: Evaluation and Implementation, Second Edition
Energy Systems Engineering: Evaluation and ...
Francis Vanek, Louis ...
Hardcover - 672 pages
$60.99
Photovoltaics: Design and Installation Manual
Photovoltaics: Design and Installation ...
Solar Energy ...
Paperback - 336 pages
$38.17
Photovoltaic Systems Engineering, Third Edition
Photovoltaic Systems Engineering, Third ...
Roger A. Messenger, ...
Hardcover - 527 pages
$107.02
Optimization of Power System Operation (IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering)
Optimization of Power System Operation ...
Jizhong Zhu
Hardcover - 664 pages
$126.66
Design of Smart Power Grid Renewable Energy Systems
Design of Smart Power Grid Renewable Energy ...
Ali Keyhani
Hardcover - 592 pages
$120.55
Electric Power Distribution System Engineering, Second Edition
Electric Power Distribution System ...
Turan Gonen
Hardcover - 856 pages
Power Systems and Renewable Energy: Design, Operation, and Systems Analysis
Power Systems and Renewable Energy: Design, ...
Gary D. Price
Paperback - 192 pages
$59.95
Submarine Power Cables: Design, Installation, Repair, Environmental Aspects (Power Systems)
Submarine Power Cables: Design, ...
Thomas Worzyk
Hardcover - 296 pages
$151.20
Power System Monitoring and Control
Power System Monitoring and Control
Hassan Bevrani, ...
Hardcover - 288 pages
$92.48
Wind Turbine Operation in Electric Power Systems: Advanced Modeling
Wind Turbine Operation in Electric Power ...
Zbigniew Lubosny
Paperback - 262 pages
$170.11
Control of Power Inverters in Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Integration
Control of Power Inverters in Renewable ...
Qing-Chang Zhong, ...
Hardcover - 438 pages
$115.20
Power Quality: Problems and Mitigation Techniques
Power Quality: Problems and Mitigation ...
Bhim Singh, Ambrish ...
Hardcover - 600 pages
$130.99
Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems
Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind ...
Remus Teodorescu, ...
Hardcover - 416 pages
$118.17
How to Solar Power Your Home Everything You Need to Know Explained Simply (Back-To-Basics Conserving)
How to Solar Power Your Home Everything You ...
Martha Maeda
Paperback - 336 pages
$18.20
Renewable Fuel Standard: Potential Economic and Environmental Effects of U.S. Biofuel Policy
Renewable Fuel Standard: Potential Economic ...
Committee on Economic ...
Paperback - 250 pages
$68.00
Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems
Renewable and Efficient Electric Power ...
Gilbert M. Masters
Hardcover - 680 pages
Electric Power Substations Engineering, Third Edition (Electrical Engineering Handbook)
Electric Power Substations Engineering, ...
Hardcover - 536 pages
$125.96
Transformers and Inductors for Power Electronics: Theory, Design and Applications
Transformers and Inductors for Power ...
W.G. Hurley, W.H. ...
Hardcover - 370 pages
$103.48
Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Systems, Transportation and Industrial Applications
Power Electronics for Renewable Energy ...
Haitham Abu-Rub, ...
Hardcover - 826 pages
$147.57
Alternative Energy Systems and Applications
Alternative Energy Systems and Applications
B. K. Hodge
Paperback - 432 pages
Modeling and Analysis with Induction Generators, Third Edition (Power Electronics and Applications Series)
Modeling and Analysis with Induction ...
M. Godoy Simões, ...
Hardcover - 466 pages
$113.60
Large-Scale Solar Power Systems: Construction and Economics (Sustainability Science and Engineering)
Large-Scale Solar Power Systems: ...
Dr Peter Gevorkian
Paperback - 400 pages
$44.99
Renewable Energy in Power Systems
Renewable Energy in Power Systems
David Infield, Leon ...
Hardcover - 350 pages
$71.89
Smart Power Grids 2011 (Power Systems)
Smart Power Grids 2011 (Power Systems)
Hardcover - 696 pages
$57.52


Have some knowledge to share

If you have some expert knowledge or experience, why not consider sharing this with our community.  

By writing an electrical note, you will be educating our users and at the same time promoting your expertise within the engineering community.

To get started and understand our policy, you can read our How to Write an Electrical Note